Can you answer the question "How many holidays there on Earth?"Most likely, unlikely.And this is not surprising.Those on earth has accumulated the greatest of the number.Moreover, even a fanatical scientist who put his entire professional life to the study of this issue, and at best can give only approximate figures.And all because that in addition to well-known festivals in almost every corner of the world will be found a series of celebrations, of which only the ignorant favorites.
However, all this diversity, oddly enough, the roots is almost the same.The history of the holidays in most cases rests on the ancient beliefs and magical rituals.Let us see what were the primitive celebration, and how it all could happen.
There is an opinion that it all started with the ritual dances around the fire.For example, in order to have something to attract or, conversely, scare.By nature man - this being not entirely independent.That's why he was always looking at the unconscious level (and co
aesthetics, morality, entertainment
however be a mistake to suppose that the ancient festivals exclusively related to pagan cults, and other such things.These actions were the three main destinations - aesthetics, morality and, as you might guess, entertainment.
aesthetic function was to put the festival, as opposed to everyday life.This was achieved by creating an appropriate visual range in the form of all sorts of costumes, merchandise and special decorations and music.As an illustrative example, dozhivshego to modern times, there may be mentioned the ritual dances of some African tribes.It is worth noting that in these dances every movement and sound are its secret meaning.
moral function achieved by the praise of various virtues: faith, courage, obedience, loyalty, honesty, generosity and so on.When another human speech as such did not exist, the ancient people passed these truths by means of gestures, facial expressions and inarticulate sounds, equipped with the right intonation.Later, all these "teachings" were formed in the songs, parables, costume sketches, and other species that are called folklore.
entertainment functions in a special explanation does not need.Holiday - it is an occasion to escape from everyday worries and stock up on positive emotions until the next suitable occasion.Perhaps even then people began to acquire the habit "live the holiday before the holiday."It's not every day you can volunteer to be the official surrender fun and relaxing.In addition, if at the celebrations was not such an attractive side, it is unlikely that they have managed to gain immense popularity.You agree that from such a stimulator, which leads to a sense of freedom and liberation, not to give up so easily.
concept of "Three Do»
Further, as you might guess celebrations went on the path of "three have": increase, complexity and refinement.This is the process in a scientific way is also called "evolution", ie planned development from simple forms to more complex.There was all this in parallel with the social processes whereby some holidays disappear and are replaced by others.For example, for quite objective reasons, the secular nature of the pagan holidays were replaced by Christian.
It is worth noting that public events can be a symbol of reconciliation and unification and fragmentation.The latter is important for those people who feel the vital (and emphasize!) His identity and difference from others.This is how individual communities on national, religious, political, ideological and even mental grounds.And this, as you might guess, is reflected on holidays.Case Study: The days of independence, which in each state are found in a completely different date.
Speaking of dates.There are festivals that are directly associated with them.That is, a particular day of a particular month of a particular year there was an event that his contemporaries considered worthy to remain in the memory of future generations.Victory in a serious fight?Celebrate!Separated or joined to someone?We note!We adopt a new law?Walk!And because social processes are not in place, and the number of such days is constantly increasing.
Present and Future
What are all these changes have resulted in the end?In a considerable number of species and subspecies holidays.Here are a few examples: state, religious, national, family, professional.And each has its own traditions, features and scale.
What distinguishes the folk festivals?They particularly emphasized samostiynost, natural and organic culture of the people living in a given territory.As far as public holidays, they are subordinated to the dominant ideology, or at least special regulations.
However, the story does not end holidays.They continue with enviable persistence fruitful and multiply.What is the outlook for the future?It is unlikely that this trend will stop once.And because holidays will learn more and more interesting.