success in many spheres of activity depends on the ability to produce the desired effect on the audience.Therefore, those who are involved in politics, teaching, business, not to mention advertising, it is important to know and apply the techniques of oratory.
1 Lexical techniques involve the use of various tropes - words and expressions used in a figurative sense in order to achieve greater expressiveness.Frequently used paths:
lSravnenie - assimilation of objects or their properties.They help to make abstract and unfamiliar things clear and simple, such as numerical data:.
«solar core temperature of 15 million ° C ... a piece the size of a nucleus with the head of a pin could not be approached closer than. 140 km »
lMetafora - transfer of title from one to another, similar, or, conversely, contrasting object:
« beside ourselves, fall life, windy people, nerves of steel, dark personality ... »
lEpitet - word or expression figuratively defining the subject, giving it a new sh
«Love hot, clear blue, blue blood, golden autumn, cold heart ...»
lGiperbola - exaggeration, emphasizes or enhances the properties of the objectspeech:
«sea of tears, as the sand by the sea, a hundred times already said, have not seen for a thousand years ...»
Other trails: irony, allegory, juxtaposition, parable, litotes (understatement), etc.. d. These include creative thinking and listening to involve their imagination and feelings.can be particularly effective quotes, sayings, proverbs, logical chain, sayings, anecdotes, parables and short tons. p.
2 Syntax techniques based on the construction of the text, the order of words and sentences in it.The most commonly used:
lPovtor - secondary references (verbatim or paraphrased) have already expressed their words or thoughts:
« For those villages, forests, woods, forests » or "I am innocent!I repeat: innocent »
lUmolchanie - an unexpected interruption phrases with a view to excite the audience:!
« But death ... but the power ... But disaster Narodnye ... »
lPauzy and the delay between the two parts of the text or proposal to create ainjection and emphasize:
«So ... in the category wins ...»
lRitoricheskie questions encourage students to mentally give the answers:
«dreams, dreams where your sweet?" or "who are the judges? »
lPreduvedomlenie helps advance to prepare the audience for the content of speech:
« In this speech, we will get the answers to these questions ... »
3 voice techniques involve breathing and proper possession of the vocal cords.As a general rule, require the working out by themselves or as part of a particular rehearsal performances.
lHoroshaya diction - the clarity of pronunciation sounds, words and phrases.This implies the absence of speech defect (lisp, nasal, and so on. P.), Pronunciation of all the sounds needed without swallowing endings.
lTemp speech should not be delayed or accelerated (except parts of speech, where it is necessary for the public exposure).Optimally - 120 words per minute.
Starting with the slow and gradual transition to a more rapid pace Rapporteur
can create the effect of the injection of speech and strengthen the impression.
lSila voice (increase or decrease the volume in the right places and expressive color) commensurate largest audience and the content of the speech.
4 General rules oratory:
lInformativnost (objectivity, meaningfulness, usefulness for the audience).
lProdolzhitelnost speech - a maximum of 30-40 minutes, otherwise it will be difficult to keep the attention of the audience.
lGramotnost (eliminate errors, profanity, slang, words-parasites, foreign words, if they can be replaced by a Russian, to decipher the abbreviations that may not be apparent, check the correct accents and so on. N.).
lStruktura speech: small, causing interest in the entry, a few basic, clearly allocated points and leading prisoners.
As can be seen, not quite oratory talent, but rather a set of techniques, methods and rules to follow that anyone can learn to influence the minds and hearts of his listeners.
What oratory?What is its secret?What is it useful and how to apply it in their speeches and lectures?What are the effective techniques used by professionals?The article tells about the general rules of this art, and the three main groups of public speaking techniques.